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Andrees, Beate and Patrick Belser, eds. Forced Labor: Coercion and Exploitation in the Private Economy Lynne Rienner Publisher (2009)
This multi-disciplinary research consists of case studies from Latin America, Africa, South-East Asia and Europe drawn from the ILO research program on forced labour. It explores and analyzes the fraudulent recruitment processes, debt bondage and other exploitative systems in the private economy. It also offers perspectives on how legislation, policy action and statistics can be strengthened in the field of forced labour. The central argument is that coercion and economic exploitation, which characterize modern forced labour, arise as a result of market failures producing socially unacceptable outcomes, in terms of both equity and efficiency. Beate Andrees is the head of the ILO Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, and Patrick Belser is Senior Economist at ILO.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony & Bunzl, Martin, eds. Buying Freedom: The Economics of Slave Redemption Princeton University Press (2007)
Buying Freedom: The Ethnics and Economics of Slave Redemption is an interdisciplinary collection of essays by multiple authors. It seeks to unite the opinions of anthropologists, economists, historians and philosophers on the question of slave redemption. This book explores both the practical and ethical implications of buying a slave out of servitude. The editors of this book are philosophers. Kwame Antony Appiah is a British-born Ghananian-American philosopher and a professor at Princeton University, and a winner of the 2011 National Humanities Medal. Martin Bunzl is a professor of philosophy at Rutgers University.
Armstrong, Helen C. Rebuilding Lives: An Introduction to Promising Practices in the Rehabilitation of Freed Slaves Free the Slaves (2008)
This manual was written for Free the Slaves by Helen Armstrong. Helen Armstrong is a long-time global advocate in the movement to promote and protect breastfeeding. With her experience in health issues around the globe, she put together a manual that seeks to provide answers to the questions regarding the successful rehabilitation of former slaves. It draws on other global training materials, and provides a comprehensive view of the immediate rehabilitation needs to long-term reintegration needs and concerns of freed slaves. The purpose of this manual is to provide service providers with expertize and guidance on their rehabilitation programs with the target population.
Bales, Kevin Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (Revised Edition) University of California Press (2004)
Disposable People explores the old concept of slavery in the contemporary era of capitalism. Bales explains the nature of contemporary slavery by examining five case-studies around the world. Kevin Bales highlights how cheap and disposable today’s slaves are, and how contemporary slavery takes different forms from prostitution, to brick making, to forced labour in the charcoal industry. Bales also draws comparisons between new and old forms of slavery. Bales analyzes slavery in each case-study through social, historical and economic contexts. Kevin Bales is the co-founder and previously President of Free the Slaves. Free the Slaves is the US sister organization of Anti-Trafficking International.
Bales is the founder of Free the Slaves, the sister organization to the UK’s Anti-Slavery International, the world’s oldest human rights group. Bales’ book Disposable People (1999) was one of the initial studies on modern-day slavery. In Ending Slavery: How We Free Today’s Slaves, Bales presents further actions that can lead to slavery’s extinction. He uses his personal journey to explain how governments and citizens can work together to create a world free of slavery.
Ishmael Beah came to the United States when he was 17, but only after years of abuse from Sierra Leone’s national army as a child soldier. A Long Way Gone follows Beah’s journey as an IDP wandering from village to village in an effort to avoid the rebel army forces. He is eventually recruited by the national army, given addictive drugs, trained to shoot AK-47s, and put on the front lines of conflict. Later, the UN pulls him and other child soldiers out of the army and places them in a rehabilitation center, where Beah begins his journey toward physical and psychological freedom.
Frances P. Bernat is a Professor of Behavioral Sciences at Texas A&M International University. Her research focuses on current legal issues that impact women as victims and offenders, and on the intersection of race and class on crime and punishment. Human Sex Trafficking is a synthesis of research discussing the dilemmas faced by sex trafficking victims and the difficulty of prosecuting and punishing the offenders. The book also delineates possible solutions for identifying and assisting sex trafficking victims.
Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II Anchor Books/Random House (2008
Blackmon is a native of Mississippi and a former Wall Street Journal Chief in Atlanta, GA. In Slavery by Another Name, Blackmon exposes one of the most shameful eras in American history — that of the ‘neoslavery’ that took place in the decades after the Civil War. Blackmon uses slave narratives and historical analyses to show African Americans’ journey to freedom in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He identifies the industries that continued to enslave blacks and outlines the legal hardships of emancipation. Slavery by Another name was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 2009, among other honors.
This book is an analysis of the international law of human trafficking. It examines the linkages between the international law of human trafficking and the international law of state responsibility, transnational criminal law, refugee law, and international criminal law. In the context of human trafficking, the book outlines the responsibility of states to address the “3Ps” (prevention, prosecution, protection). The author worked on human trafficking issues during her United Nations career. She was involved in negotiations for the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (including its protocols on trafficking and migrant smuggling), led the development of the UN Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, and served as the founding chair of the UN Inter-Agency Group on Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling. The author has also worked with lawmakers and criminal justice officials on the topic of human trafficking in over forty countries.
Hochschild, Adam Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves Houghton Mifflin (2005)
This book by the author of King Leopold’s Ghost delves into the story of what many consider to be the world’s first human rights movement: the campaign (spanning several decades) to end slavery in the British Empire. The book examines in depth this history from political, economic, and social angles, and brings to life the variety of figures (both well-known and obscure) who sustained the movement. Academics and activists alike will find practical wisdom in this book, which presents a fascinating picture of how the early abolitionists used campaigning tools that are employed by civil society organizations today. In its examination of both the challenges and the successes of the antislavery movement, Bury the Chains provides insight into the hurdles that today’s abolitionists will encounter as they seek to end modern-day slavery.
IOM/BM.I Resource Book for Law Enforcement Officers on Good Practices in Combating Child Trafficking IOM International Organization for Migration March (2006) Available online at: http://www.ch.iom.int/fileadmin/media/pdf/publikationen/resource_book.pdf
This book’s origins lie in a desire to increase cross-border cooperation in combatting child trafficking and standardize operational methods for law enforcement officers. It covers methods of prosecution for child traffickers, as well as protection for trafficked children. The book is a collaborative project involving contributions from experts in the anti-trafficking field, including law enforcement. It provides background on child trafficking, including definitions, international and European standards, general trends, and consequences for child victims of trafficking. There are sections on age assessment (standards on and methods of age assessment); investigative methods (risk assessment and explanation of different types of investigations); interviewing techniques; and cooperation between law enforcement and NGOs/social service providers.
Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/books/CT%20handbook.pdf”] This handbook seeks to disseminate IOM’s lessons learned regarding provision of services to victims of trafficking. Its audience is NGOs and other service providers who are engaged in assisting victims of trafficking. The IOM emphasizes a holistic approach to victim assistance, so while the individual chapters address specific issues, practitioners are encouraged to read the entire handbook in order to develop a framework for addressing victim assistance. The specific topics related to victim assistance that the handbook covers are: security and personal safety; screening of victims of trafficking; referral and reintegration assistance; shelter; health; and cooperation with law enforcement authorities. The handbook also includes a useful interview checklist for service providers to use when interviewing victims of trafficking.
Kempadoo, Kamala, ed. Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights (Paradigm 2005)
Kempadoo presents a novel way of understanding modern day trafficking and prostitution, looking to international migration, forced labor and prostitution, and violations of the right of movement and economic security.
Laczko, Frank & Gozdziak, Elzbieta, eds. Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey IOM International Organization for Migration (2005) (offprint of special issue of “International Migration”, Vol. 43 (1/2)
Originally intended for presentation at a 2004 IOM Research Division conference, contents of this report include summaries of regional-specific research and data collection methods and results relating to human trafficking. The report offers insight into the challenges associated with methodology and research of human trafficking and aims to provide recommendations for the improvement of such methods.
By comparing human trafficking within individual regions and countries, Shelley examines multiple business models of human trafficking, concluding that the trend of human trafficking will increase given economic and demographic inequalities. Shelley then proposes multiple efforts that might be taken by international actors to curb the systemic problems that feed into human trafficking.
Analyst Peter Singer offers an insightful account regarding the doctrine of child soldiers in war, an increasingly common occurrence despite traditional laws of war. Looking at specific countries from Afghanistan to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Singer explores the process of recruitment and indoctrination of child soldiers and offers practical solutions to both prevent child soldiering and effectively rehabilitate and reintegrate victims.
Skinner, E. Benjamin A Crime So Monstrous: Face-to-Face With Modern Slavery Free Press/Simon & Shuster (2008)
An experienced journalist, Skinner documents his experiences with the Haitian restavek child slave system, Sudanese slave redemption, sexual commercial exploitation in Romania, as well as bonded labor in Uttar Pradesh, India. Often posing as a buyer wishing to purchase children and women, Skinner is able to bring the reader into close proximity with the middlemen, sellers, and victims, providing unique insight into the often hidden world of modern human slavery. While affording the reader a heart wrenching yet informative perspective on the various forms global human trafficking takes, Skinner’s book also details U.S. and NGO political involvement and ideology in a readable, eye-opening fashion.
Surtees, Rebecca and Sarah Craggs. Beneath the surface. Methodological Issues in Research and Data Collection with Assisted Trafficking Victims IOM International Organization for Migration and NEXUS Institute 2010 Available online: http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/beneath_the_surface.pdf
This document provides an overview of the underlying research, analytical, and evaluative measures vital to the development and implementation of truly effective practices to end modern day slavery. This report mainly focuses on the data collection aspect of human trafficking-related research since the fruition of the UN Protocol. It explores how existing research falls short while discussing ways that future, higher quality research may be able to create a clearer path for policymakers and practitioners to implement transformative techniques in addressing human trafficking. Topics covered include the role of researchers, methodology, the IOM approach, and the use of different tools across diverse global terrains. This report is made possible through joint efforts of the Nexus Institution, the International Organization for Migration, and the U.S. State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.
Taylor, Jacqueline Sanchez, “Female Sex Tourism: A Contradiction in Terms?” (Feminist Review, No. 83, Sexual Moralities (2006), pp. 42-59 Available online: www.jstor.org/stable/3874382
Taylor’s paper covers an ethnographic research project conducted in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica that aims to closely examine the theory and practice of sexual-economic exchanges between female tourists and local men and boys. A fascinating, in-depth look into the informal tourist market of these selected nations, Taylor’s paper juxtaposes popular feminist theory on women, power, and sex alongside questions of male agency and race. Acknowledging the often ‘fuzzy’ line between commercial and noncommercial sexual relationships, this paper explores the phenomenon of racialized power in relation to heteronormativity and modern constructs of gender.
U.S. Department of Justice “Attorney General’s Annual Report to Congress on U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons Fiscal Year 2008” (June 2009) Available online: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/reports/2009/125631.htm
This report contains an assessment of the federal government’s human trafficking-related activities during FY 2008 as well as recommendations for FY 2009. Following the U.S. TPVA’s emphasis on the three P’s of Protection, Prosecution, and Prevention, this report focuses on the benefits and services (including immigration-related) available in various U.S. departments to identified victim/survivors of human trafficking as well as sections pertaining to investigations, prosecutions, and training and outreach. While a relatively brief document considering the scope of the issue, this report does, nevertheless, provide some useful quantitative information as well a crucial insight into the programs and preventative actions of the U.S. government.
United Nations “Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns” (April 24, 2006) Available online: http://www.unodc.org/pdf/traffickinginpersons_report_2006-04.pdf
Produced in 2006 by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, this report draws on data from the UNODC Database on Human Trafficking Trends to create its first report on the patterns of movement around the world as it relates to human trafficking. The UNODC acknowledges the limitations and imperfections of the data used within the report, addressing many of these issues themselves. Still, they express the hope that further, better research will come forward in response to their work.
UN.GIFT “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons” (February 2009) Available online: http://www.unodc.org/documents/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf
Produced in 2009 by the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, this report examines the global response to human trafficking, particularly the responses of individual countries to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons. UN.GIFT does not seek, within this report, to assess the scale of human trafficking violations within each country; rather, they aim to monitor each nation’s response to it on the institutional and policy levels. The report offers breakdowns of legislation passed, prosecutions and convictions, demographics of identified victims, and other key information to understanding the current state of human trafficking policy.
Weld, Theodore Dwight and American Anti-Slavery Society American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses New York: American Anti-Slavery Society (1839)
Originally published in 1839, American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses was written and compiled by Theodore Dwight Weld, a fervent abolitionist who was pressured to leave seminary and end his studies due to his outspoken opposition to slavery. The book compiles accounts of freed slaves and whites, addressing the working conditions, treatment, diet and clothing, and living conditions of slaves. Additionally, the book presents a number of arguments made in favor of slavery, which the author proceeds to counter.
Winterdyke, John, Benjamin Perrin & Philip Reichel, eds. Human Trafficking: Exploring the International Nature, Concerns, and Complexities (2010) Taylor & Francis
Edited by John Winterdyke, Benjamin Perrin, and Philip Reichel, this book seeks to discuss the difficulties inherent in the issue of human trafficking, specifically those dealing with providing services and protection to victims and prosecuting traffickers. They address a number of myths and misconceptions about human trafficking and explore ways in which research can be more effectively and accurately conducted. Finally, the editors expand on the need for collaboration between law enforcement, service providers, and others to address the complexities of human trafficking and the hindrances that often get in the way of such partnerships.
Zimmerman, Yvonne C. Other Dreams of Freedom: Religion, Sex, and Human Trafficking Oxford University Press (2012).
In this book, Yvonne Zimmerman explores the ways in which the Protestant Christian church has framed how American politics views and addresses the issue of human trafficking. By tying human trafficking directly to the morality of Protestantism, America has constructed the view that combatting trafficking necessarily means seeking to tightly regulate sexual work. Zimmerman suggests that not only is this a less effective way to approach the issue, but that it in fact limits how America constructs the notion of freedom for those involved.
Zimmerman, Yvonne C., “From Bush to Obama: Re-thinking Sex and Religion in the United States’ Initiative to Combat Human Trafficking” (Spring 2010, Vol. 26, Number 1 edition of the “Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion – JFSR)
Yvonne Zimmerman’s book takes the reader on a unique, in-depth journey that explores the relation of Church and State through the lens of feminist theory examining the merging of traditional Protestant values with U.S. policy. While exposing the conservative religious worldviews that effect the Bush administration’s understanding of modern day slavery, Zimmerman also investigates the administration’s obsession with preventing sex work, consequently ignoring other forms of forced labor and subjecting anti-trafficking policy to anti-sex ideology.